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Modern Man in Search of a Soul (Routledge Classics)

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Modern Man in Search of a Soul is the perfect introduction to the theories and concepts of one of the most original and influential religious thinkers of the twentieth century. Lively and insightful, it covers all of his most significant themes, including man's need for a God and the mechanics of dream analysis. One of his most famous books, it perfectly captures the feeli Modern Man in Search of a Soul is the perfect introduction to the theories and concepts of one of the most original and influential religious thinkers of the twentieth century. Lively and insightful, it covers all of his most significant themes, including man's need for a God and the mechanics of dream analysis. One of his most famous books, it perfectly captures the feelings of confusion that many sense today. Generation X might be a recent concept, but Jung spotted its forerunner over half a century ago. For anyone seeking meaning in today's world, Modern Man in Search of a Soul is a must.


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Modern Man in Search of a Soul is the perfect introduction to the theories and concepts of one of the most original and influential religious thinkers of the twentieth century. Lively and insightful, it covers all of his most significant themes, including man's need for a God and the mechanics of dream analysis. One of his most famous books, it perfectly captures the feeli Modern Man in Search of a Soul is the perfect introduction to the theories and concepts of one of the most original and influential religious thinkers of the twentieth century. Lively and insightful, it covers all of his most significant themes, including man's need for a God and the mechanics of dream analysis. One of his most famous books, it perfectly captures the feelings of confusion that many sense today. Generation X might be a recent concept, but Jung spotted its forerunner over half a century ago. For anyone seeking meaning in today's world, Modern Man in Search of a Soul is a must.

30 review for Modern Man in Search of a Soul (Routledge Classics)

  1. 4 out of 5

    J.G. Keely

    There are certain people who delight in mythologizing their lives--looking for deep meanings and explanations for who they imagine themselves to be. It is not mere soul-searching, because they dislike even reasonable criticism, and cannot stand to be made aware of the ways their actions conflict with the vision they have of themselves. They want to be special and important, and are less interested in understanding themselves than in creating an image. There are some rare people for whom the act o There are certain people who delight in mythologizing their lives--looking for deep meanings and explanations for who they imagine themselves to be. It is not mere soul-searching, because they dislike even reasonable criticism, and cannot stand to be made aware of the ways their actions conflict with the vision they have of themselves. They want to be special and important, and are less interested in understanding themselves than in creating an image. There are some rare people for whom the act of personal recreation is a serious matter--people who explore their own depths, trying on new personae, always shifting and moving--they are the artists of identity, and they are few. Like any art, it takes a level of skill and determination that most people lack. Self-creation is like writing a novel: the average person trying to do it is going to end up with something cliche, hackneyed, conflicted, and ultimately self-serving. Which is why these people often say the same sorts of things: 'I'm a little bit psychic, it runs in the family', 'I'm very in-touch with my spiritual side', 'I have Cherokee blood', 'I've always been very creative'. Now, I don't want to just pick on New Age spiritualists, because there are plenty of people who do the same thing on the other end: 'I've always been a very rational thinker', 'I find it so hard to be around naive people', 'I have this passion for world politics', 'I watch a lot of documentaries'. No matter the form this delusion takes, it can be very frustrating to deal with someone who is so self-centered. They want to talk about themselves, indulge in their fantasy, and be confirmed by those around them. Some cynical individuals develop a game for interacting with this type: engage them, pretend to buy into their self-delusion, and then try to suggest something even more outlandish to see if they'll accept it. Extra points if the new idea clearly contradicts their previous claims. Unfortunately, the entertainment value of this game is limited, since it isn't hard to get them to accept even nonsensical notions. As Forer's astrological experiment demonstrated, people are quick to accept flattering explanations without questioning them; as Harlan Ellison said: “If you make people think they're thinking, they'll love you; but if you really make them think, they'll hate you.” In his opening essay, Jung's examples of the efficacy of dream analysis seemed similarly convenient. It reminded me of the solutions from some of the Sherlock Holmes stories, where things happen to fit all the data, but in an unlikely and convoluted way. Sure, it's possible to sit down with some tarot cards and tell someone else a story about their life that matches the draw, but just because something is capable of inspiring the human mind does not mean that it is ultimately meaningful. Da Vinci was once studying the whorls and eddies in a streambed for a painting, and was suddenly struck with the idea that the human heart could use similar currents to maintain constant bloodflow throughout the body. It turned out that he was correct--though we wouldn't know it until a few years ago. However, just because a certain swirl in a stream inspired his thought does not make that swirl intelligent or magical or an agent of fate. Yet unlike his presentation of ideas in Synchronicity, Jung is much more cautious here, telling us that he does not place importance on dreams because of any system or understanding, but because he often can't think of anything else to analyze! In his own words: "I had tried to explain too much in too simple a way, as often happens in the first joy of discovery." Disappointingly, I found the majority of Jung's theories arise from the same misplaced enthusiasm. Again and again, whether he is speaking of dream interpretation, synchronicity, or the collective unconscious, I see grand, far-flung notions with little basis in reality. He speaks about Einstein's Theory of Relativity making his theories of psychic interconnectivity possible, and so demonstrates that he develops theories using the reverse of the scientific process. Normally, you take something you understand and then create a theory based on that. Jung instead takes an idea he shows no ability to comprehend (relativity) and states that it makes his ideas possible. Sadly, one can see this same poor technique at work today, such as in the case of the 'documentary' What the Bleep Do We Know!?, which invited out a group of Quantum Physicists, interviewed them for a few hours, then edited them down to a few comments which seemed to imply that Quantum Physics made ESP possible. It is true that there are interconnections and unpredictable events on the quantum level, but trying to scale them to the human mind is pointless. Just because an ant can lift a hundred times his body weight, doesn't mean a human can. The scientists interviewed in the film later spoke out against it. These sorts of pseudoscientific ideas play into the personal narratives of those self-obsessed folk I was speaking about earlier. Jung himself gives us a striking indictment of this sort of person: ". . . a great horde of worthless people people give themselves the air of being modern by overleaping the various stages of development and tasks of life they represent. They appear suddenly by the side of modern man as uprooted human beings, bloodsucking ghosts whose emptiness is taken for the enviable loneliness of modern man and casts discredit upon him." Today we might call them 'hipsters'--people who take on the mannerisms and appearance of eccentricity, but lack any capacity for real iconoclastic thought. Artists and scientists often dress shabbily because they spend all their time and thought on subjects other than their appearance. Their horn-rimmed glasses and v-neck sweaters are not magic totems that confer intelligence. As Jung indicates, when an individual falsifies an outward appearance without first developing inner depth, they become like 'bloodsucking ghosts', empty and entirely reliant on external confirmation. It is unfortunate that the attempt by the previous generation of parents to 'give' self-esteem to their children has been just as destructive, producing a generation of people with a great deal of confidence but no foundation to base it upon, so they collapse or lash out any time they are challenged. But, looking at Jung's own theories, I came away with the impression that he was just as guilty of "overleaping the various stages of development" in his enthusiasm: he developed grand theories without a foundation, skipping past proofs and evidence in favor of loose anecdotes and flawed studies. In reading earlier thinkers--Hume, Nietzsche, Plato--I found myself constantly confronted with startling insights into human thought, motives, society, and relationships. Freud's psychoanalysis was hardly the beginning of the study of the human mind. Yet here, reading Jung, writing with the benefit of the scientific method and with numerous studies to draw upon, I get none of these insights. It seems strange that the 'modern blossoming' of psychoanalytic thought about which Jung is so enthusiastic seems less productive than the centuries of thinkers that preceded it. It became increasingly clear to me that I am simply not a Modern Man in Search of a Soul, for the same reason that I am not a man in search of gold bars. Souls and bullion might be nice things to have, but it seems rather pointless to wander my yard with a shovel looking for either one. There are a thousand thoughts and activities which seem to me more promising. Jung himself promotes the importance of spirituality with a sort of Pascal's Wager--according to Pascal, an atheist who is wrong still goes to hell, while a believer who is wrong merely ceases to exist, so in terms of consequences it's better to believe (for the record, Pascal did not mean this to be taken as a serious argument). Jung's Wager has a more psychological premise: in our youth, we are driven by our urge to reproduce, but once we are old, we no longer have this urge, so it's important to be spiritual so you have something to do with yourself after midlife. He suggests it's only natural, since humans can live to eighty, there must be some purpose to those extra years. After all, elders in tribes are revered for their great wisdom in when crops should be planted or how disputes should be resolved. Unfortunately, Jung's arguments are once again in conflict with his conclusions. If we apply the adage of the Zen teacher 'listen to what I do, not what I say', then we will recognize that the importance of these elders is based upon their practical knowledge, not their spirituality--maybe those extra forty years should be devoted to the sciences or engineering, then? In both wagers, we are asked to believe because we have nothing better to do, which is a sad state of affairs. The only people it could convince would be those utterly frivolous 'empty bloodsuckers' Jung spoke of earlier. It appeals to them because the search for 'the soul' can so easily become a fantasy, an escapist odyssey of self-importance. The exploration of the self must be tempered by an exploration of the world, and whenever they come into conflict, the world is correct. To recede into the self and ignore the world is the way of madness--of 'hearing voices', tinfoil hats, Napoleonic delusions, and other schizophrenic ephemera. Sometimes they come up to me and ask me if I'm happy. I say no. They ask if something is missing. Something is missing, I say. It's god, they say. No. People are starving, dying, warring. A wealthy elite exert control in the most destructive ways, leveraging and speculating and devastating whole swathes of the global economy, raking a profit off the top before the bottom drops out. I haven't had a regular job for years. Students leave high school hardly able to read or write, ignorant of the most basic facts of history and science. Whole cultures and gender groups are made to feel worthless and incomplete by predatory consumerist culture, which they then destructively feed back into. My believing in god won't help any of those people. It won't help me. It won't change anything. If believing caused me to suddenly feel happy and whole, it would only be because I had turned inwards so far that I no longer recognized the cries of pain of my fellow man. Sometimes it's good to be angry, to be depressed, to be frustrated. There are many situations for which they are a completely normal, rational response. Like cancer--I would think, if someone got cancer, they would be entitled to feel upset, angry, hopeless, and depressed sometimes, but as Barbara Ehrenreich found when she got breast cancer, there's a whole 'forced positivity' culture set up to completely overwhelm and alienate anyone who displays a perfectly reasonable emotional reaction. To be happy, fulfilled, and untroubled in the face of that is not healthy, it's not a sign of sanity. If a person can tells me that they feel happy and whole in this world, the way things are, then it seems clear to me that they have already checked out. Sure, the world is full of joys, wonders, splendors, epiphanies, and new understandings, but that's only one half of the picture, and to discount the rest is to live half a life.

  2. 5 out of 5

    Ahmad Sharabiani

    L'homme à la Découverte De Son âme = Modern Man in Search of a Soul, Carl Jung Modern Man in Search of a Soul is a book of psychological essays written by Swiss psychologist Carl Jung. Most important books in the field of psychology. In this book, Jung examines some of the most contested and crucial areas in the field of analytical psychology, including dream analysis, the primitive unconscious, and the relationship between psychology and religion. Additionally, Jung looks at the differences betwe L'homme à la Découverte De Son âme = Modern Man in Search of a Soul, Carl Jung Modern Man in Search of a Soul is a book of psychological essays written by Swiss psychologist Carl Jung. Most important books in the field of psychology. In this book, Jung examines some of the most contested and crucial areas in the field of analytical psychology, including dream analysis, the primitive unconscious, and the relationship between psychology and religion. Additionally, Jung looks at the differences between his theories and those of Sigmund Freud, providing a valuable basis for anyone interested in the fundamentals of psychoanalysis. تاریخ نخستین خوانش: روز نوزدهم ماه آوریل سال 2008 میلادی عنوان: انسان در جستجوی هویت خویشتن؛ نویسنده: کارل گوستاو یونگ؛ مترجم: محمود بهفروزی؛ تهران، گلبان، 1380؛ در 400ص؛ چاپ دوم تهران، جامی گلبان، 1385؛ در 400ص؛ چاپ چهارم 1392؛ شابک 9789642575053؛ چاپ پنجم تهران، جامی انتشارات مصدق، 1395؛ در 400ص؛ شابک 9789645786036؛ موضوع روانکاوی - ناخودآگاهی از نویسندگان سوئیس - سده 20م عنوان: مشکلات روانی انسان مدرن؛ نویسنده: کارل گوستاو یونگ؛ مترجم محمد بهفروزی؛ تهران، جامی، 1385؛ در 208ص؛ نگارنده در این کتاب طی شش بخش به کندوکار درباره‌ ی مشکلات روانی انسان مدرن پرداخته است؛ این کاوش را با بحث درباره‌ ی «ساختار روح»، «روح و زمین»، «روح و زندگی»، آغاز نموده، و در بخش چهارم به «روان‌شناسی تحلیلی و جهان بینی»، اشاره کرده است؛ در بخش پنجم به بحث درباره‌ ی «انسان عصر باستانی» پرداخته، و در بخش پایانی «مشکل روانی انسان مدرن» را بررسی کرده است؛ نگارنده سعی کرده تا بتواند تفکیکی بین انسان‌هایی که در جامعه‌ ی امروزی زندگی می‌کنند و انسان مدرن قائل شود تاریخ بهنگام رسانی 19/04/1399هجری خورشیدی؛ ا. شربیانی

  3. 5 out of 5

    Leonard Gaya

    This book is a series of essays and lectures, collected initially and translated into French by Dr Roland Cahen, around the end of WWII. It is an excellent introduction to the extensive work of the Swiss psychologist since it covers a wide range of topics on Jung’s “analytical psychology” (as opposed to Freud’s “psychoanalysis”?), such as: - The unconscious, personal and collective, - The structure of the psyche, including the conscious functions (feeling, intuition, thought, sensation… this This book is a series of essays and lectures, collected initially and translated into French by Dr Roland Cahen, around the end of WWII. It is an excellent introduction to the extensive work of the Swiss psychologist since it covers a wide range of topics on Jung’s “analytical psychology” (as opposed to Freud’s “psychoanalysis”?), such as: - The unconscious, personal and collective, - The structure of the psyche, including the conscious functions (feeling, intuition, thought, sensation… this hypothesis will later be developed into what we now know as the MBTI personality types), the unconscious functions (memory, subjective contributions, affects, bursting in of the unconscious). Note: I have read the book in French, so not entirely sure this is the right vocabulary used in English versions, - Experimenting with associations, and what they can reveal about complexes, through observable mental agitation in the patient, - Dreams and their possible interpretations. Two series of dreams are extensively analyzed: first the derailing train and the giant crayfish; then the dragon in the crypt of Toledo (not going to disclose any spoilers here: this last part of the book is worth reading in full). Overall, this is an excellent book, although it strikes me how similar it is to The Tavistock Lectures I read a while ago.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Ian

    this book is not to find yourself, so don't misinterpret the title of it, "modern man in search of a soul". these essays written by the Swiss psychotherapist are to explain the mindset of how a therapist needs to adjust his attitude towards his patients in order to provide effective therapy. it takes an account for the complex beliefs of society through history and experience, so the data can be used to give an accurate explanation of the patient's neuroses. Freud and Adler denied the presence o this book is not to find yourself, so don't misinterpret the title of it, "modern man in search of a soul". these essays written by the Swiss psychotherapist are to explain the mindset of how a therapist needs to adjust his attitude towards his patients in order to provide effective therapy. it takes an account for the complex beliefs of society through history and experience, so the data can be used to give an accurate explanation of the patient's neuroses. Freud and Adler denied the presence of religious influence in the trieb of human behavior and psyche. Jung, argued about how sexual influences are not the sole source of how people act the way they act. but he argued, that in order to provide the best therapy to a patient is to have an unprejudiced objectivity. however, the only way a person can have such a skillset, is to fully accept himself in this manner, in an unprejudiced objectivity, because a therapist can only provide a solution to a neurosis by stopping the internal battle with oneself. a person is constantly fighting in his mind. it's either the sensual vs spiritual or ego vs shadow; nonetheless, both are an example of the dissociation of personality. in any case, read this book if you're interested in experiencing an increase in the knowledge of the mind...even though, there will always be a mystery to the essence of the soul and only the person can provide the answer to that mystery and not the therapist.

  5. 4 out of 5

    Heather Campbell

    I had to put some space between finishing and reviewing this book. Jung was Freud's student--in my opinion this is one case where the student outshines the teacher. This will be my forever reference to mind/spirit health. Jung's explanation of creativity is amazing--but his real feat is explaining the modern person who has found traditional religious custom lacking and what he should do next. The modern man has broken with the past and the masses, is solitary, needs to be sound and proficient,an I had to put some space between finishing and reviewing this book. Jung was Freud's student--in my opinion this is one case where the student outshines the teacher. This will be my forever reference to mind/spirit health. Jung's explanation of creativity is amazing--but his real feat is explaining the modern person who has found traditional religious custom lacking and what he should do next. The modern man has broken with the past and the masses, is solitary, needs to be sound and proficient,and is both culmination and disappointment and he is conscious of this. He sees the good and bad of everything, suffered shock and deals with constant uncertainty. He is skeptical, fearful and faithless. Religion and science have both disappointed him and he yearns for rest and shelter. The cure as I understand Jung is to discover meaning in one's life through EXPERIENCE--follow your convictions and learn by what happens next. Above all--choose love, faith, hope and insight instead of sexuality, fear, disillusionment and pseudo-consciousness. The spirit and body are one and finally, accept that "I am the least of these my brethren." Christian words for universal concepts. I loved reading his opinons on clergy, art, science, dreams, war, missionaries,archeology, Freud and Adler. I have started keeping a dream journal. He makes me feel proud to be Swiss.

  6. 5 out of 5

    Jordan

    Jung is like the Beatles to me

  7. 4 out of 5

    Julian Worker

    This is not an easy read by any means. However, it is fascinating to read the opinions of CG Jung. Childhood and extreme old age, to be sure, are utterly different and yet they have one thing in common : submersion in unconscious psychic happenings. The psyche is a causal factor in disease. Neurosis is an inner cleavage - the state of being at war with oneself ....what drives people to war with themselves is the intuition or knowledge that they consist of two persons in opposition to one another.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Guillermo Galvan

    Modern Man in Search of a Soul is a great introduction to Carl Jung’s theories of analytical psychology. The book is broken down into eleven essays dealing with topics of dream analysis, Freudian psychology, spirituality, and religion. Some consider Jung’s ideas radical because they take into account the soul. While many people believe that the soul exists, it’s impossible to prove it either way and thus begin the arguments. Taking this stance introduces an element of metaphysics into treating m Modern Man in Search of a Soul is a great introduction to Carl Jung’s theories of analytical psychology. The book is broken down into eleven essays dealing with topics of dream analysis, Freudian psychology, spirituality, and religion. Some consider Jung’s ideas radical because they take into account the soul. While many people believe that the soul exists, it’s impossible to prove it either way and thus begin the arguments. Taking this stance introduces an element of metaphysics into treating mental illness. Eighty years later, the school of psychiatry is still hesitant about treading in the dark forest of spirituality. Jung goes deep inside this forbidden territory and brings to light the nature of our darkness. Much of this book deals with the subterranean part of our mind, the subconscious. The subconscious is a total mystery because it has either been ignored as irrelevant or purposefully avoided for being an ultimate source of our knowable. But it can only be ignored at the price of damaging our soul. This is reflected in the ever growing number of people seeking out psychiatric help, suicides committed, wars waged, and other forms of violence. Until we can bring a balance between the two half of our minds, the dark and light, we’ll suffer the spiritual decay that has become a cornerstone of modernity. Jung keeps a complicated subject as straightforward as possible. The humility of this book is commendable. It invites conflicting points of views and inspires exploration into the unconscious for the good of humanity. Modern Man in Search of a Soul combines elements of psychology, philosophy, religion, spirituality, and metaphysics. Looking at today’s world, approximately eighty years after this book was written, Jung’s theories take on a prophetic tone which urges us to embrace the shadow part of our mind, for that is where the healing light will be found.

  9. 5 out of 5

    Paul

    Of some historical value, but it's essentially a load of old tosh. He lost me about halfway through chapter one when he started talking about interpreting dreams, and how he predicted the death of a man based on a dream he had about climbing or something. Then there is the following excerpt, also regarding dream interpretation: "...the dark horse, which brings death, so obviously we can deduce that 'horse' represents mother, the life-giver, the beginning of everything..." This means nothing. Of some historical value, but it's essentially a load of old tosh. He lost me about halfway through chapter one when he started talking about interpreting dreams, and how he predicted the death of a man based on a dream he had about climbing or something. Then there is the following excerpt, also regarding dream interpretation: "...the dark horse, which brings death, so obviously we can deduce that 'horse' represents mother, the life-giver, the beginning of everything..." This means nothing.

  10. 4 out of 5

    Cat

    Jung's lecture "The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man" is so very rich and entirely relevant, still, today. It was delivered in Zurich in 1931 at the cusp of another horrific war. I forgot what a plain-spoken sage he could be at times, deep, elegant and never denying our capacity for both good and evil. I'm still digesting ... If you read only one essay by Carl Jung, this should be the one. Jung's lecture "The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man" is so very rich and entirely relevant, still, today. It was delivered in Zurich in 1931 at the cusp of another horrific war. I forgot what a plain-spoken sage he could be at times, deep, elegant and never denying our capacity for both good and evil. I'm still digesting ... If you read only one essay by Carl Jung, this should be the one.

  11. 5 out of 5

    Ann M

    In answer to those who notice how he criticizes Freud -- Jung was Freud's student when Freud's theories were all the rage, and Freud was not as open to Jung's ideas as he might have been, so Jung was forced to criticize him in order to defend and promote his own work. When he says that psychologists should work together, he means that the powerful, influential and jealous Freud should stop feeling so threatened by him. Nowadays, we take much of Jung's point of view for granted. His theories of a In answer to those who notice how he criticizes Freud -- Jung was Freud's student when Freud's theories were all the rage, and Freud was not as open to Jung's ideas as he might have been, so Jung was forced to criticize him in order to defend and promote his own work. When he says that psychologists should work together, he means that the powerful, influential and jealous Freud should stop feeling so threatened by him. Nowadays, we take much of Jung's point of view for granted. His theories of archetypes, the collective unconscious, holistic approach to body, mind and soul, and the reality of visionary experience have become as acceptable or much more acceptable to many of us than Freud's theories of traumas arising predictably in the family of origin and not having any connection to anything in the real world. To Freud, artistic inspiration was personal, a reaction to trauma. To Jung, it was transpersonal, a response to the voice of the collective unconscious. This really is worth reading. The chapter on psychology and literature, where he makes a distinction between psychological literature and visionary literature -- you could say that it is similar to the difference between mundane Freud and cosmic Jung. This book seems a bit hard to read because he is writing at a time when no one accepted his work -- not like now, when he has accomplished the great feat of changing how we think. If it seems he is over-explaining, you have to understand this is the first time the western world had heard this. Now, thanks to him, we take much of his work for granted. It has become part of our world view.

  12. 5 out of 5

    Stephen Hiemstra

    Back before I started seminary in 2008, I read whatever interested me. My urge to read was seldom random. For months on end, I might read about a particular topic like Perl programming, military history, or binge on a series like Horatio Hornblower novels. Today, after so many years of reading and an imperfect memory, I am often unable to pinpoint where I got certain ideas until paging through one of the books in my library. Carl Jung’s Modern Man in Search of a Soul is one such book and it is so Back before I started seminary in 2008, I read whatever interested me. My urge to read was seldom random. For months on end, I might read about a particular topic like Perl programming, military history, or binge on a series like Horatio Hornblower novels. Today, after so many years of reading and an imperfect memory, I am often unable to pinpoint where I got certain ideas until paging through one of the books in my library. Carl Jung’s Modern Man in Search of a Soul is one such book and it is source of a surprising number of my better ideas. Problem Statement In his book, Jung’s chapters read as if they had been composed as independent essays, but they make sense together and build together towards his theme as he writes in the middle of the Great Depression (1930s) from Switzerland: “Today this eruption of destructive forces [World War One] has already taken place, and man suffers from it in spirit. That is why patients force the psychotherapist into the role of a priest, and expect and demand of him that he shall free them from their distress. That is why we psychotherapists must occupy ourselves with problems which strictly speaking, belong to the theologian.” (Jung 1955, 241) This analysis suggests that much of the increase in psychiatric problems that we currently stem from inadequate attention to spiritual matters, not some mysterious, psycho mumbo jumbo as is usually argued. In other words, the pastor is correct in saying that many people are looking for love in all the wrong places when they should be addressing God. Neurosis Back before psychiatrists cataloged their diagnoses with diagnostic manuals, they talked about the vague notion of neurosis. Jung provides as reasonable an explanation of neuroses as can be found: “Most of our lapses of the tongue, of the pen, of memory, and the like are traceable to these disturbances, as are likewise all neurotic symptoms. These are nearly always of psychic origin, the exceptions being shock effects from shell explosions [PTSD] and other causes. The mildest forms of neurosis are the ‘lapses’ already referred to—blunders of speech, the sudden forgetting of names and dates, unexpected clumsiness leading to injuries or accidents, misunderstandings of personal motives or of what we have heard or read, and so-called hallucinations of memory which cause us to suppose erroneously that we have said or done this or that.” (Jung 1955, 32) The biggest problem cited by his patients? “I am stuck.” (Jung 1955, 61) Can you image the traumatic effect in the 1930s of having a large family and you lose your job? Jung’s primary answer to being stuck? Learning how to play like a child again (Jung 1955, 69) Approach to Psychoanalysis Jung (1955 30) breaks psychoanalysis into four steps: confession, explanation, education, and transformation. Here we witness the priest at work. Confession. Jung (1955, 31) writes: “As soon as man was capable of conceiving the idea of sin, he had recourse to psychic concealment—or, to put it in analytical language, repressions arose. Anything that is concealed is a secret. The maintenance of the secrets acts like a psychic poison which alienates their possessor from the community. In small does, this poison may actually be a priceless remedy, even an essential preliminary to the differentiation of the individual.” That Jung would start with an analysis of the effects of sin is mind-blowing for those who want to scrub the word from our modern and postmodern vocabularies. Ignoring sin as we do is almost to invent new secrets that Jung describes as poison. Explanation. After the catharsis of confession, a patient must have an explanation to avoid a relapse (Jung 1955, 37). If the catharsis fails, it is because the patient is unable to deal with their shadow-side (subconscious) that is the part of their own personality that they try to hide, even from themselves. Education. Those unable to deal with their own shadow-side oftentimes have problems with other people’s weaknesses as well. Jung (1955, 43) see the need to education these people in basic social skills. Transformation. Jung (1955, 52) sees transformation of a patient oftentimes being limited by weaknesses in the psychoanalysts themselves. A good psychoanalyst must be able to walk-the-walk, to be a good example their patients. Personality Classifications Jung is best known today for his classification of personality types. Jung (1955, 89-91) distinguished introvert from extrovert, sensation from intuition, thinking from feeling, judging from perceiving. Using these distinctions to classify an individual’s preferred reflective tendencies, sixteen different personality types can be identified. One can develop hypotheses about how that each of these types would learn and respond to particular challenges. For example, Myers and Myers (1995, 149) write: “The five types that favored the stable and secure future were all sensing types. The warmest of the sensing types, ESFJ, characteristically favored service to others. Seven of the eight intuitive types favored either the opportunity to use their special abilities or the change to be creative…” Personality types are not predictive in a deterministic sense because people change their classification preferences over time, but they indicate tendency or probability. Background and Organization Carl G. Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and student of Sigmund Freud. He wrote in eleven chapters: 1. “Dream Analysis in Its Practical Application 2. Problems of Modern Psychotherapy 3. The Aims of Psychotherapy 4. A Psychological Theory of Types 5. The Stages of Life 6. Freud and Jung—Contrasts 7. Archaic Man 8. Psychology and Literature 9. The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology 10. The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man 11. Psychotherapists or the Clergy.” (Jung 1955, v) These chapters are preceded by a translator’s preface. Assessment Carl Jung’s Modern Man in Search of a Soul is an amazing book. Jung originated a lot of the techniques of analytical psychology and his patient case studies are a window into the mindset in the 1930s. His picture of the psychologist as a secular priest changed my image of the counseling profession forever. This book is of obvious interest to counselors, pastors, and seminary students, but others would likely find it a fascinating read References Myers, Isabel Briggs and Peter B. Myers. 1995. Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type (Orig Pub 1980). Mountain View: Davies-Black Publishing.

  13. 5 out of 5

    Mitchell

    For every conscious deficit, there arises an unconscious boon. For every unconscious growth, the conscious mind suffers a loss. The compensatory law of opposites relating to the psyche makes this work particularly sublime for me. Jung’s inability to take to task Christianity effectively leaves a bit to be desired, but, that’s just like…my opinion, man. Regardless, Jung’s innovation is undeniable. Borrowing directly from Nietzsche, Jung never falls under the illusion of his own perspective. He co For every conscious deficit, there arises an unconscious boon. For every unconscious growth, the conscious mind suffers a loss. The compensatory law of opposites relating to the psyche makes this work particularly sublime for me. Jung’s inability to take to task Christianity effectively leaves a bit to be desired, but, that’s just like…my opinion, man. Regardless, Jung’s innovation is undeniable. Borrowing directly from Nietzsche, Jung never falls under the illusion of his own perspective. He constantly re-evaluates his evaluations with a self-awareness that is refreshing. He truly was beyond antithetical values. This is fantastic work, particularly for anyone wanting to explore the origins of modern psychology, as well as to juxtapose Jung’s ethos with Freud’s. Jung effectively takes Freud to task regarding Freud’s gross reductionism of the unconscious mind. If the unconscious were nothing but filth, nothing but a disease of misaligned sexual impulse, why are so many men insatiably curious to analyze and understand it? The unconscious is decidedly the power player, while occidentals merely scrape and claw at fitting their categorical imperatives. They suffer when pure logic fails, and I believe Jung knew why: Perspectivism, or lack thereof, and a denial/ ignorance of the all powerful, unconscious forces which drive our existence.

  14. 4 out of 5

    Daniel Polansky

    Rather than waste a lot of time discussing the development of psychology, the rest of the review is going to be a scattershot series of impressions about a (fairly) seminal text in modern culture. • As a therapist, I’d take Jung over Freud, but in terms of scathing observations into the nature of humanity, I’ll take the Austrian. • Still, Freud was completely batshit, I’m glad someone got to point that out. • Then again, collective memory is also garbage and I don’t know how anyone could seriously Rather than waste a lot of time discussing the development of psychology, the rest of the review is going to be a scattershot series of impressions about a (fairly) seminal text in modern culture. • As a therapist, I’d take Jung over Freud, but in terms of scathing observations into the nature of humanity, I’ll take the Austrian. • Still, Freud was completely batshit, I’m glad someone got to point that out. • Then again, collective memory is also garbage and I don’t know how anyone could seriously hold to it. That, for instance, the ancient Greeks associated horses with the sea is of no relevance to a patient’s dream unless your patient happens to be a classicist. • I am skeptical of trying to force narrative coherence on the output of the unconscious mind; you can barely do it with the output of the conscious. • Also, magic isn’t real. • Still, there’s a joy to the thing, an honest affection for the human species, an acknowledgement of ignorance combined with a willingness to improve the lot of others that I could get down with.

  15. 4 out of 5

    Vincent Chough

    I can't say I agree with everything Jung says, but he describes psychiatric/psychic disorders extremely well. Some of his conclusions were surprisingly short-sighted in my opinion. For example, Jung did not fully explore the depths of the Christian faith. He didn't even come close. It is one thing is to be religious, but to be spiritual is another thing altogether. When I say "Christ is my Savior" some might take this as a cliché. Nevertheless, this directs every aspect of my life. I focus not on I can't say I agree with everything Jung says, but he describes psychiatric/psychic disorders extremely well. Some of his conclusions were surprisingly short-sighted in my opinion. For example, Jung did not fully explore the depths of the Christian faith. He didn't even come close. It is one thing is to be religious, but to be spiritual is another thing altogether. When I say "Christ is my Savior" some might take this as a cliché. Nevertheless, this directs every aspect of my life. I focus not on dogma, but on a profound relationship with the Son of God. Either way, this small collection of essays makes you think and re-examine things about yourself and others. Not many books can do that effectively... thus, 5 stars.

  16. 5 out of 5

    بثينة العيسى

    I love Jung's work. He is widely open to any point of view. Never afraid to sound mystic or spiritual. I love Jung's work. He is widely open to any point of view. Never afraid to sound mystic or spiritual.

  17. 5 out of 5

    Amalie

    This book is a collection of lectures given by the psychologist Carl Jung, 11 lectures dealing with topics of dream analysis, Freudian psychology, psychotherapy, personality types (that eventually led to Myers–Briggs/MBTI).... These lectures are recorded here as: 1. Dream Analysis in Its Practical Application 2. Problems of Modern Psychotherapy 3. The Aims of Psychotherapy 4. A Psychological Theory of Types 5. The Stages of Life 6. Freud and Jung—Contrasts 7. Archaic Man 8. Psychology and Literature 9. T This book is a collection of lectures given by the psychologist Carl Jung, 11 lectures dealing with topics of dream analysis, Freudian psychology, psychotherapy, personality types (that eventually led to Myers–Briggs/MBTI).... These lectures are recorded here as: 1. Dream Analysis in Its Practical Application 2. Problems of Modern Psychotherapy 3. The Aims of Psychotherapy 4. A Psychological Theory of Types 5. The Stages of Life 6. Freud and Jung—Contrasts 7. Archaic Man 8. Psychology and Literature 9. The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology 10. The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man 11. Psychotherapists or the Clergy. Jung's writing is really dense, but if one can get pass that, reading him is am amazing experience. It has been more than a month since I began this book. It's something I have on the side to read in between books. Reading this reminds me just why I prefer Jung's views to Freud's. While Freud insists that things are this way because, well, that is how things are, Jung is more of sharing what he thinks, but he does not say what he thinks is the precise explaination.

  18. 5 out of 5

    Filipe

    After reading the short introduction on Jung, I decided to delve deeper into his essays. This book is a compilation of essays that were first delivered as lectures. 1. Dream Analysis in Its Practical Application 2. Problems of Modern Psychotherapy 3. The Aims of Psychotherapy 4. A Psychological Theory of Types 5. The Stages of Life 6. Freud and Jung—Contrasts 7. Archaic Man 8. Psychology and Literature 9. The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology 10. The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man 11. Psychotherapi After reading the short introduction on Jung, I decided to delve deeper into his essays. This book is a compilation of essays that were first delivered as lectures. 1. Dream Analysis in Its Practical Application 2. Problems of Modern Psychotherapy 3. The Aims of Psychotherapy 4. A Psychological Theory of Types 5. The Stages of Life 6. Freud and Jung—Contrasts 7. Archaic Man 8. Psychology and Literature 9. The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology 10. The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man 11. Psychotherapists or the Clergy. I really enjoyed the complexity and "deepness" of Jung's theories on the human psyche and behaviour. Will definetely read more from him.

  19. 4 out of 5

    Iver Raknes

    The world is at the fringes of a spiritual rebirth through a rediscovery of the soul. It is possible that the road on which we are traveling will bring about a renaissance of Catholicism or Protestantism. Atlas that seems to be what Jung imagined to be the antithesis of what Nietzsche proposed through his famous proclamation “God is dead.” — Man had killed his Gods, and now needed to make god of himself, or else we’d be destined to wear the blood of our highest creator on our hands for all etern The world is at the fringes of a spiritual rebirth through a rediscovery of the soul. It is possible that the road on which we are traveling will bring about a renaissance of Catholicism or Protestantism. Atlas that seems to be what Jung imagined to be the antithesis of what Nietzsche proposed through his famous proclamation “God is dead.” — Man had killed his Gods, and now needed to make god of himself, or else we’d be destined to wear the blood of our highest creator on our hands for all eternity. However depth psychology proposes otherwise; Man is not his own god, but rather possess a universe of symbolism waiting to be uncovered from the depths of the psyche. Here will we rediscover the spirit which makes man. Where Jung aims to pave the road and guide us in this pursuit of a soul forgotten. Jung was a strange man in many ways. Extraordinarily imaginative, he could get lost in daydreams and was a tremendously powerful visualizer. A lot of what he discovered was a consequence of engaging in long, elaborate fantasies where he would converse with figures of his imagination as if they were fragmented parts of his personality waiting to be heard. He dealt with the deepest parts of the psyche mostly through means of introspection, uncovering the many mysteries of the conscious mind. For those who take seriously his ideas he becomes an enlightening and deeply fascinating thinker. As many notable scholars, he makes one aware of the most profoundly troubling truths of humanity. His books are certainly not meant for everyone. Though he seems to attract people with great artistic inclination, scientifically minded people might find him so removed from any conventional knowledge that he becomes obscure, mystical, or even mad. However, it should be kept in mind that many of his theories are now being uncovered and elaborated on in fields such as neuropsychology and experimental psychology — as well as contributing great inspiration to discourses varying from thinkers to artists and philosophers. His body of work can be viewed as an amalgam of many things — he was a scholar of the grandest style, had deep knowledge of Latin and Greek and studied alchemical manuscripts for over a decade as an older man. He became increasingly interested in the emergence of science from what he considered to be the collective imagination. Thus he found the rise of scientific materialism as deeply troubling to the validity of the soul as an idea. Though brought up in the school of Freud, Nietzsche and Goethe became his primary intellectual influences. Their teachings lead him to address the gap between religion and science, where the idea rejoining of matter and spirit became the primary motif of his life — a question he struggled with to the very end. He took Nietzsche’s comment about the death of God very seriously. Nietzsche predicted that there were going to be two major consequences of the collapse of formal religious belief during the end of the nineteenth century. He believed that the abandonment of faith would lead people to a morally relativistic position that would prove to be psychologically intolerable. His main argument might be elucidated like this: if one adopts a moral relativistic position and takes it to its final conclusion, then everything becomes of equal value. There is no gradient between things, nor better nor worse. The separation between good and evil dissolves and the differentiation becomes obsolete. The problem with that psychologically, is that one cannot orient himself in a world that has those properties. In order to act, even after the well developed cybernetic models, one has to aim at something that is better than what it is now, or else there is no reason to be expending the energy. One needs the gradient in order to act. Nietzsche’s analysis was predicated on the idea that if the value hierarchy collapsed, then not only would people not be motivated to do anything, but they would be absolutely confused and depressed as a consequence of the value being stolen from their lives. The consequence of a loss of purpose would be that they would become somewhat nihilistic, or even absolutely nihilistic. The latter alternative being that they would turn to rigid ideological systems as a replacement — after all, tyranny is preferable over nothingness. What Nietzsche offered as an alternative to nihilism and tyranny was that humans could create their own values. His idea of the overman being the antithesis, the idea that man could be overcome and transcend the valueless universe that the decline of religion has left us with, creating their own values as a conscious act. Wether we can create our values consciously or not is not an obvious question. Because it is not obvious that values are something that is consciously created. This is why the psychoanalysts has so much to add to the philosophical debate that Jung dedicated his life to answering. Freud first had much to add to that with the proposition of the unconscious and that of the id. Which made it apparent that it is not necessary true that one is the master of one's own house so to say — that the conscious mind what definitely not the whole of “you”. Part of the reason that people like to go after freud is that modern people accept Freudian ideas as more or less a given now — so if you’re a brilliant thinker and your thought permeates society to the point where your most radical propositions are accepted by everyone, all that is really left is your errors. So it is easy to concentrate on Freud's errors. The most radical and widely accepted view in psychology is the way that Freud introduced of how to look at the psyche as a whole. Where he argues that the psyche is best construed as a set of sub-personalities acting as a whole. All with different motivation that shines through at different times — which is something like nature asking of you for the necessities of being when you are hungry, cold, sexually driven, or thirsty, which he called the Id. Jung was incredibly grounded in biology. He was a remarkable in that his notion of history and the relationship human psyche had to history covered spans of time that were really just as old as life itself. What most of European philosophers at the time meant by ancient history was something like two or three thousand years, while Jung thought way past that into deep history. In a certain regard, one could think of him, as a deep archaeologist of the Id, Freud thought about the id in primitive or primordial terms. So his “angry” Id would be like a beast that is out of control. But Jung recognizes that the unconscious was far more sophisticated than many of your more conscious part of your being. and that it guided your adaptation and structured your understanding in ways that you didn’t understand. That they were universal, hence biological, and far more sophisticated that some sort of primordial biological drives might indicate. So, then you might consider that from the Jungian perspective a lot of the forces that ancient civilizations considered as deities, were personified representations of instinctual systems. You might ask “Why would people conceptualize of those phenomena as gods?”. One way of thinking about it is, what is older, you or aggression! — well, I’m let's say 30 years of age, and aggression is millions of years old. If I think that I control aggression then I’m deluded, as it is millions of years older than me, and is a much better construed phenomenon than what “I” is. Same could be said about love. Is falling in love a choice? Love might also be thought og as a state of possession. The phenomena of love as a complex biological system will be a here long after my death, and has been here for tens of thousands of years before my birth. When it manifests itself from within you, you are possessed by it, and you do its bidding. And you may do its bidding despite what it is that you most deeply want — and thus should be considered as a more well-founded personality than a person, and therefor something worthy of the status of a god or goddess. I come to think about Venus, the Roman goddess for Love and sexual attraction. Jung therefore came to believe that human experience was structured by underlying patterns of behavior that were specific and unique to human mind, and on top of that a realm of imagistic and symbolic representation that in part was a consequence of representation of those underlying behaviors. We act in a human way, and we have been acting in a human way as long as there has been human beings. And we have been acting in a mammalian way as long as there have been mammals. But Humans are a peculiar creature in many ways. We watch ourselves act, and we watch others act, and we watch how we act in relation to each other. We then tell stories about those actions. And Jung believed that as a consequence of manifesting a particular set of human behaviors over hundreds of thousands, and perhaps millions of years, we therefore also evolved a cognitive apparatus that was capable of representing those way of behavior. And that the cognitive apparatus expressed the representation of those common behaviors in imagistic and symbolic form. And the basic symbolic and imagistic form is something like drama. Now why would that be? What is drama? Drama is the abstract representation of patterns of behavior. One watches people manifest a set of particular behaviors. Then one might notice that there are characteristics and quasi-unique representation in drama. So, for-example there is “the bad guy”, and there is the good guy, so then when you watch a drama you accept the a-priory distinction between the good guy. And that's where the idea of the archetype is. In this case the Jung would say that it is the archetype of the hostile brothers, where one might come to think of Cain and Abel or Gilgamesh and Enkidu. That begs the question; what might happen to a culture where there are no stories to convey the archetype and ways of behavior, does man cease to be man? What will he then return to if not the most primitive of behavior? This is why Jung stressed the importance of the archetypes and paved the road of which he is about to travel succeeding this first book. A book that could be credited with the radical discovery of stories being the description of manifested patterns of actions as old as biology itself. Thus, by Jung’s approximation the stories that belong to culture are our best help in the search for how to live — you don't create your story as an act of will, you discover it as an act of being. There seems to be a common view that this first publication of Jung should mainly be seen as his separation from Freud — that view does In my opinion a great disservice to one of the greatest thinkers of the last century. Jung truly believed that the Modern Man had lost his soul, and that it was of the highest importance to find our way thought the intellectual and spiritual struggle that man has been entangled in since the death of god. Trough the archetypes we rediscover the great platitude of literary history. And through the collective unconscious we find hopes that the symbols that underlie our psyches might again resurface and bring meaning. Man has to find his spiritual meaning again, and in Jung's view psychologies role was to best help guide him. In the last chapter of the book, Jung argues that the psychologists' role is not that of becoming the modern clergy. Instead the role of the psychologists is to travel with the modern man into the depths of the unknown in order rediscover the spirit that has been lost in what has been rendered a soul-less world.

  20. 4 out of 5

    Jeremy Allan

    I’ve meant to read Jung for sometime now and I’m glad I finally did. This collection of essays serves as a nice primer to his mature thought and how he viewed his practice of psychology alongside those of his peers. While no essay goes into great depth about any topic or idea, notably his concept of archetypes, the general foundations seem to be present, particularly of his view of the psyche and the “collective unconscious.” At points, reading these essays can feel a bit repetitive, particularly I’ve meant to read Jung for sometime now and I’m glad I finally did. This collection of essays serves as a nice primer to his mature thought and how he viewed his practice of psychology alongside those of his peers. While no essay goes into great depth about any topic or idea, notably his concept of archetypes, the general foundations seem to be present, particularly of his view of the psyche and the “collective unconscious.” At points, reading these essays can feel a bit repetitive, particularly after the first handful, though this can be explained, in part, by remembering that Jung was facing repeated criticisms from various and numerous angles: he was frequently being asked to restage the same battles. His tone often indicates that he would rather have long ago moved on from some of them, even if, for the most part, he preserves more humility than I expected to find. But what seems to be the joining thesis among these essays, if indeed there is one? To me it seems quite clear: Jung wanted to find a way to bridge the gap between empirical science and the broader human spirit, especially as manifest in the realm of psychology, and even more particularly in the psyche. Trained as a doctor, and one immersed in the new, growing discipline of psychology, he was naturally inclined toward an empirical, scientific view of human problems related to the mind. In this collection, however, he shows time and again how his practice had led him to find that a spiritual component of the mind, broadly speaking, needed to be accounted for in the treatment of his patients. Thusly, he began seeking a broader approach, one that addressed the spiritual needs of the patient as much as the physical. This, in itself, I find persuasive. My one abiding suspicion and critique of these ideas is that they are deeply aligned with bourgeois conformity. Throughout the collection, Jung talks of cures for his patients, and this usually entails a well-adjusted return to bourgeois society. While he occasionally talks about the extraordinary, or a life that is more than normal, this still seems to be restricted to a spiritual sense, and therefore would be subject to the same critiques we might raise against any institution that encourages the people to ignore their material existence (in poverty or in the squalor of wealth) in exchange for a form of spiritual reward. This makes sense coming from a rich, Swiss doctor in the mid-twentieth century, and I wouldn’t say that the ideas could never be applied alternatively. I remain wary, however, of how this particular approach might be used to develop a psychology that keeps people firmly in their places, content to navel gaze rather than demand a better life. In such cases, this form of Jungianism would be a far inferior substitute for spiritual practices, like Buddhism, which also encourage introspection, except with very different objectives. I need to read more of his work, though, before I make up my mind completely.

  21. 4 out of 5

    Patrick

    Ok, so I wrote a review for this book before I finished it, assuming that it would be adequate. Boy, was I wrong. The last chapter of this book is just...W-O-W! It is the most concise explanation of the intellectual and spiritual struggle of modern man I have ever come across. Aside from that, the last chapter provides more insight about the job/responsibilities of a psychotherapist than any other part of the book. below is my original review of the book. I haven't finished it yet, but I will go Ok, so I wrote a review for this book before I finished it, assuming that it would be adequate. Boy, was I wrong. The last chapter of this book is just...W-O-W! It is the most concise explanation of the intellectual and spiritual struggle of modern man I have ever come across. Aside from that, the last chapter provides more insight about the job/responsibilities of a psychotherapist than any other part of the book. below is my original review of the book. I haven't finished it yet, but I will go ahead and start my review: This book is exactly what the title implies. It is about Modern, industrial, technological, scientific man, and our search for a soul. This book does some amazing things. It really puts in perspective modern man compared to his ancestors of hundreds and even thousands of years ago. It dispels myths that ancient men believed in spirits and superstitions because they were less informed than we are, but instead postulates that they were informed differently, and not necessarily worse. It explains differences between the masses, and their traditional beliefs, and so-called modernist, who, despite their superior grasp of history, science, and their own context in the world and in history, encounter great troubles when search for the kind of spiritual existence that was commonplace, and even experienced externally (as opposed to internally), hundreds or thousands of years ago. Anyone who is interested in philosophical or spiritual thinking, even in the least bit, should read this book. It can be dry at times, but the unique insights it provides, even today (as it was published in 1933), is invaluable. I only have one criticism of this book. Carl Gustav Jung, who is known to be the original champion of the theory of "the collective unconscious", tends to use his idea of collective unconscious as punctuation in this book. Though his ideas are put across rather humbly throughout the book, he slips the idea of collective unconscious in at the ends of a groups of paragraphs, seemingly as an advertisement that he, and no one else, is Mr. Collective Unconscious. It definitely applies to most of the essays in the books, though it is sometimes a stretch, but it would be better if he had a single essay on the subject then left the issue alone. The point of view set forth in this book is more than adequate, even if collective unconscious was never mentioned.

  22. 4 out of 5

    Nicholas

    Having read the Essential Jung by Anthony Storr, this I thought, may be covering much the same ground, but aside from the first chapter on dream analysis, there seemed to be little that was duplicated and thankfully there was no mention of Alchemy which to my mind overcomplicated the former. This book contains 11 essays that are aimed at giving the reader a comprehensive overview of Jungs'theories and opinions, which mainly pertain to a non-religious spiritual rebalancing of the psyche. Althoug Having read the Essential Jung by Anthony Storr, this I thought, may be covering much the same ground, but aside from the first chapter on dream analysis, there seemed to be little that was duplicated and thankfully there was no mention of Alchemy which to my mind overcomplicated the former. This book contains 11 essays that are aimed at giving the reader a comprehensive overview of Jungs'theories and opinions, which mainly pertain to a non-religious spiritual rebalancing of the psyche. Although the first few chapters sail by with comparative ease, more concentration is required in the latter half which requires more thought and consideration to what is being implied, those people more used to self-help and quick fix pop-psychology literature will probably be over taxed by the rather academic syntax. On the whole I found it very illuminating, but as I am familiar with more than a few Jungian concepts from different authors I could not really say how well it transmits the ideas to someone without any existing knowledge in this particular area.

  23. 5 out of 5

    Timothy Ball

    Human thought cannot conceive any system or final truth that could give the patient what they need in order to live: that is faith, hope, love and insight. These four highest achievements of human effort are so many gifts of grace, which are neither to be taught nor learned, neither given nor taken, neither withheld nor earned, since they come through experience, which is something "given", and therefore beyond the reach of human caprice. Experiences cannot be "made". They happen-- yet fortunate Human thought cannot conceive any system or final truth that could give the patient what they need in order to live: that is faith, hope, love and insight. These four highest achievements of human effort are so many gifts of grace, which are neither to be taught nor learned, neither given nor taken, neither withheld nor earned, since they come through experience, which is something "given", and therefore beyond the reach of human caprice. Experiences cannot be "made". They happen-- yet fortunately their independence of man's activity is not absolute but relative. We can draw closer to them that much lies within our human reach. There are ways which bring us nearer to living experience, yet we should beware of calling these ways "methods." The very word has a deadening effect. The way to experience, moreover, is anything but a clever trick; it is rather a venture which requires us to commit ourselves with our whole being.

  24. 4 out of 5

    Andy

    I've really been enjoying Jung. He's a breath of fresh air after submerging myself in all of that Freud. Freud always takes the most reductive route, because his focus is on justifying psychology as a science and science is purposely reductive. (I realize now that he wasn't nearly reductive enough to meet current scientific standards.) But Jung corrects a lot of Freud by placing some of the theories that Freud thought of as fundamental in a larger context, and also by seeing around Freud's myopi I've really been enjoying Jung. He's a breath of fresh air after submerging myself in all of that Freud. Freud always takes the most reductive route, because his focus is on justifying psychology as a science and science is purposely reductive. (I realize now that he wasn't nearly reductive enough to meet current scientific standards.) But Jung corrects a lot of Freud by placing some of the theories that Freud thought of as fundamental in a larger context, and also by seeing around Freud's myopic view of religion. Something is lost by taking this new approach. It's a lot more speculative and vague, but nevertheless Jung's overall worldview is closer to something I could actually accept than Freud's.

  25. 4 out of 5

    Maureen

    It has been so long since I read this book that I barely remember it. It is very much about dream analysis, and Jung seeks to convey the experience of psychoanalysis from the perspective of the analyst. It also underscores the importance of the unconscious, which endeavors to speak to the self through dreams. What made a lasting impression, though, was Jung's discussion of modern society, and the dilemma of anyone trying to live in a world that runs contrary to basic human needs. We need quiet i It has been so long since I read this book that I barely remember it. It is very much about dream analysis, and Jung seeks to convey the experience of psychoanalysis from the perspective of the analyst. It also underscores the importance of the unconscious, which endeavors to speak to the self through dreams. What made a lasting impression, though, was Jung's discussion of modern society, and the dilemma of anyone trying to live in a world that runs contrary to basic human needs. We need quiet in order to uncover our deepest thoughts. In the modern world, time for introspection is comes at a premium.

  26. 5 out of 5

    Charles

    Some chapters are much better than others, but the best in this book is worth returning to again and again. Jung's imaginative, expansive, playful yet serious view of psychology's role and scope is invigorating, even if not always accurate. Like Freud, even when Jung is wrong, he's brilliantly wrong. Some chapters are much better than others, but the best in this book is worth returning to again and again. Jung's imaginative, expansive, playful yet serious view of psychology's role and scope is invigorating, even if not always accurate. Like Freud, even when Jung is wrong, he's brilliantly wrong.

  27. 5 out of 5

    Jonat

    *4.5 STARS* No one doubts the importance of conscious experience. We spent 1/4 of our lives in a more or less unconscious state, so why then should we question the importance of unconscious happenings ? This is a book which urges the reader to acknowledge the influence of a spiritual world upon the visible one.

  28. 4 out of 5

    Quiver

    Creativeness, like the freedom of the will, contains a secret. (167) I’d picked this book as an introduction to Jung’s work, and I found it gave me an adequate overview as well as a decent amount of confidence that I’d gain something from his other books. Jung is a rather lively writer—or in this case lecturer, because with one exception the chapters in this books are lectures—neither too stilted nor too technical. He does not err in the other extreme either: the colloquialism and anecdotes are w Creativeness, like the freedom of the will, contains a secret. (167) I’d picked this book as an introduction to Jung’s work, and I found it gave me an adequate overview as well as a decent amount of confidence that I’d gain something from his other books. Jung is a rather lively writer—or in this case lecturer, because with one exception the chapters in this books are lectures—neither too stilted nor too technical. He does not err in the other extreme either: the colloquialism and anecdotes are well-chosen. I heard the man behind the words speaking through the text, and it was not an unpleasant voice. Of course, expect no riveting novel or immediate revelation. Especially if it’s your first experience of Jung, you might find yourself flailing initially, before you establish a baseline expectation and connect with the subject from his view point. For me it was worth it. This is a facsimile of the original 1933 edition, not reproduced with OCR and therefore not typeset to modern standards. The thick, black lettering is perfectly legible, however, and lends the text a quaint, old-fashioned feel. — What follows is a more detailed discussion of the material. Each of the eleven essays were interesting in their own right, though I most enjoyed the eight, Psychology and Literature, which is reflected in the amount of time I spend on it below. If you are wondering whether there is anything to be gleaned from this book, my notes and the quotes that I found worthwhile may offer a window into the matter. Single quotation marks denote direct excerpts followed by page numbers as they appear in the edition that I am reviewing. 1. Dream Analysis in Its Practical Application - ‘No language exists that cannot be misused’ (11) - ‘The unconscious is not a demonic monster’ (17) - ‘the overwhelming of consciousness by the unconscious—is most likely to occur when the unconscious is excluded from life by repressions, or is misunderstood and depreciated.’ - ‘The psyche is a self-regulating system that maintains itself in equilibrium as the body does.’ - ‘It is always helpful, when we set out to interpret a dream, to ask: What conscious attitude does it compensate?’ - ‘In reality, the relation between consciousness and the dream is strictly causal, and they interact in the subtlest of ways.’ (19) - Dreams are symbols of what will be made clear. 2. Problems of Modern Psychotherapy - Confession, explanation, education, (self)-transformation. - ‘the doctor “is just as much in analysis” as the patient. He is as much as part of the psychic process of the treatment as is the patient, and is equally exposed to the transforming influences.’ (50) Is the chain of transferences eventually diluted? Where does the buck stop? 3. The Aims of Psychotherapy - indicia: age and attitude (extraverted, introverted, spiritual, materialistic), habits, dream interpretations that “work”, analogies, fantasy, painting. 4. A Psychological Theory of Types - Complex intelligence, dealing with obstacles, thinking vs feeling, types (phlegmatic, sanguine, choleric, melancholic), 4 functions (sensation, thinking, feeling, intuition). 5. The Stages of Life - Four stages (childhood, youth, middle-age, old age), 3 types of consciousness (chaotic, monistic, dualistic) - ‘The wine of youth does not always clear with advancing years; oftentimes it grows turbid.’ (105) 6. Freud and Jung—Contrasts - Three contrasts (Jung starts from healthy person, works subjectively, and in his approach religion exists). 7. Archaic Man - participation mystique of Lévy-Brühl, mana, different assumptions, unpsychological, part of nature, not individualistic. - ‘It is well known that great minds have wrestled with the question whether it is the glorious sun that illuminated the worlds, or whether it is the human eye by virture of its relation to the sun. Archaic man believes it to be the sun, and civilized man believes it is the eye—so far, at any rate, as he reflects at all and does not suffer from the disease of poets. He must strip nature of psychic attributes in order to dominate it; to see his world objectively he must take back all his archaic projections.’ (145) - According to the primitive idea of mana, ‘the beautiful moves us, and it is not we who create beauty’. 8. Psychology and Literature Studying the work of art: - The so called “psychological novels” are of no interest to the psychology because in emphasising the psychology the author ‘clouds the psychological significance of the work or hides it from view’ (155). - Instead, what is needed is a narrative which seemingly doesn’t go into the psychology of the matter, because ‘Such a tale is built upon a groundwork of implicit psychological assumptions, and, in the measure that the author is unconscious of them, they reveal themselves, pure and unalloyed, to the critical discernment.’ (154) - Jung called the first mode of artistic creation psychological, the second visionary; his chief example are the first and second parts of Goethe’s Faust. Other visionary works include Conan Doyle’s detective stories, Melville’s Moby Dick, Wagner’s Nibelungenring, the poetry of William Blake. - Regarding the visionaries: ‘It is not alone the creator of this kind of art who is in touch with the night-side of life, but the seers, prophets, leaders and enlighteners also.’ (163) - On expressing the vision: ‘Since hte articular expression can never exhaust the possibilities of the vision, but falls far short of it in richness of content, the poet must have at his disposal a huge store of materials if he is to communicate even a few of his intimations.’ (164) - The role of psychology in this context is to ‘bring together materials for comparison and offer a terminology for its discussion.’ Studying the poet - ‘Creativeness, like the freedom of the will, contains a secret.’ (167) - ‘What is essential in a work of art is that it should rise far above the realm of personal life and speak from the spirit and heart of the poet as man to the spirit and heart of mankind. The personal aspect is a limitation—and even a sin—in the realm of art.’ (168) - An artist is impersonal and in fact that man as an artist ‘is his work, and not a human being’ (169). Indeed, a creative person is a synthesis of the contradictory personal life and impersonal, creative process. - Jung maintains the romantic vision of the artist: ’The artist is no a person endowed with free will who seeks his own ends, but one who allows art to realize its purposes through him. As a human being he may have moods and a will and personal aims, but as an artist he is “man” in a higher sense—he is “collective man”—one who carries and shapes the unconscious, psychic life or mankind. To perform this difficult office it is sometimes necessary for him to sacrifice happiness and everything that makes life worth living for the ordinary human being.’ (169) - Nothing is given to us for free: ’There are hardly any exceptions to the rule that a person must pay dearly for the divine gift pf the creative fire.’ (169) - Art as Dream: ‘A great work of art is like a dream; for all its apparent obviousness it does not explain itself and is never unequivocal. ’(171) 9. The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology - various names for the soul, psychic reality is the first reality. - A fine etymological discussion of the words for soul:  ‘What is the origin of the world Seele? Like the English word soul, it comes from the Gothic saiwalaand the Old German saiu'alô, and these can be connected with the Greek aiolos, mobile, coloured, iridescent. The Greek word psychealso means butterfly. Saiwalôis related on the other side the old slavonic word sila, meaning strength. From these connections light is thrown on the original meaning of the word Seele: it is moving force, that is life-force. The Latin words animus, spirit, and anima, soul, are the same as the Greek anemos, wind. The other Greek word for wind, pneuma, means also spirit. In Gothic we find the same word in us-anan, to breathe out, and in Latin an-helare, to pant. In Old High German, spiritus sanctus was rendered by atun, breath. In Arabic, wind is rīh, and rūhis soul, spirit. Thre is a quite similar connection with the Greek psyche, which is related to psycho, to breathe, psychos, cool, psychros, cold, and physa, bellows. These affinities show clearly how in Latin, Greek and Arabic the names given to the soul are related to the notion of moving air, the "cold breath of the spirit." And this is also why the primitive point of view endows the soul with an invisible breath-body.’ (181) - The collective unconscious, moreover, seems not to be a person, but something like an unceasing stream or perhaps an ocean of images and figure which drift into consciousness in our dreams or in abnormal states of mind. (186) 10. The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man - modern man is alone on the apex of consciousness. - ’The man whom we can with justice call “modern” is solitary. He is so of necessity and at all times, for every step towards a fuller consciousness of the present removes him further from his original “participation mystique”  with the mass of men—from submersion in a common unconsciousness. Every step forward means an act of tearing himself loose from that all-embracing, pristine unconsciousness which claims the bulk of mankind almost entirely. Even in our civilzations the people whole form, psychologically speaking, the lowest stratum, live almost as unconsciously as primitive races.’ (197) 11. Psychotherapists or the Clergy - the attitude of healing; most important is the acceptance of the whole person; educated man craves understanding which clergy doesn’t offer. - A fitting, uplifting, spiritual ending to the book: ‘The living spirit grows and even outgrows its earlier forms of expression; it freely chooses the men in whom it lives and who proclaim it. This living spirit is eternally renewed and pursues its goal in manifold and inconceivable ways throughout the history of mankind. Measured against it, the names and forms which men have given it mean little enough; they are only the changing leaves and blossoms on the stem of the eternal tree.’ (244)

  29. 5 out of 5

    Jed

    Having read Freud and Campbell it was nice to finally read the missing link between the ideas of those two thinkers. I liked Jung a lot. He seems to have really figured out the human mind and what it needs. I appreciate his understanding of the importance of philosophy and religion for people’s happiness. These ideas are much more realistic and inviting than the cold, unfeeling schools of phycology that I’ve read about.

  30. 4 out of 5

    Tom Schulte

    The eleven chapters in this work are, save one, lectures delivered by Jung prior to its 1933 publication. Carl Jung snipes at times at the wide target of Freud’s narrowly focused psychology, such as observing that free association merely leads to projecting one’s own complexes. But, at times it seems the crowded dreamscape of Jung’s own archetypes may be a projection of his own issues. Still, I enjoy reading vintage Jung since his relentless probing of the human psyche seems to have given him a The eleven chapters in this work are, save one, lectures delivered by Jung prior to its 1933 publication. Carl Jung snipes at times at the wide target of Freud’s narrowly focused psychology, such as observing that free association merely leads to projecting one’s own complexes. But, at times it seems the crowded dreamscape of Jung’s own archetypes may be a projection of his own issues. Still, I enjoy reading vintage Jung since his relentless probing of the human psyche seems to have given him a sagacity causing such wise observation as from "Stages of Life," "The nearer we approach to the middle of life, and the better we have succeeded in entrenching ourselves in our personal attitudes and social positions, the more it appears as if we had discovered the right course and the right ideals and principles of behavior. For this reason we suppose them to be eternally valid, and make a virtue of unchangeably clinging to them. We overlook the essential fact that the social goal is attained only at the cost of a diminution of personality. Many -- far too many -- aspects of life which should also have been experienced lie in the lumber-room among dusty memories; but sometimes, too, they are glowing coals under grey ashes." And from “Psychology and Literature”: “It is always dangerous to speak of one’s own times, because what is at stake in the present is too vast for comprehension.” I also love his take on the criticism process: “The truth is that poets are human beings, and that what a poet has to say about his is often far from being the most illuminating word on the subject. What is required of us, then, is nothing less than to defend the importance of the visionary experience against the poet himself… the personal life of the poet cannot be held essential to his art — but at most a help or a hindrance to his creative task. He may go the way of a Philistine, a good citizen, a neurotic, a fool or a criminal. His personal career may be inevitable and interesting, but it does not explain the poet." Jung also dives into the materialism vs. dualism argument: “The objection has already been raised that this approach reduces psychic happenings to a kind of activity of the glands; thoughts are regarded as secretions of the brain, and so we achieve a psychology without the psyche. From this standpoint, it must be confessed, the psyche does not exist in its own right; it is nothing in itself, but is the mere expression of physical processes. That these processes have the qualities of consciousness is just an irreducible fact — were it otherwise, so the argument runs, we could not speak of the psyche at all; there would be no consciousness, and so we should have nothing to say about anything. Consciousness, therefore, is taken as the sine qua non of psychic life — that is to say, as the psyche itself. And so it comes about that all modern "psychologies without the psyche” are studies of consciousness which ignore the existence of unconscious psychic life.” Thus, Jung is revealed as a subtle spiritualist. Finally, from “The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology”, Chapter IX of Modern Man in Search of a Soul, Jung nearly wins me over to his archetypes idea. Perhaps it is true … indulging and reading his arguments reminds me of the feeling I get watching a really good cable TV U.F.O. documentary, I want to believe: “It would be positively grotesque for us to call this immense system of experience of the unconscious psyche an illusion, for our visible and tangible body itself is just such a system. It still carries within it the discernible traces of primeval evolution, and it is certainly a whole that functions purposively — for otherwise we could not live. It would never occur to anyone to look upon comparative anatomy or physiology as nonsense. And so we cannot dismiss the collective unconscious as illusion, or refuse to recognize and study it as a valuable source of knowledge… It would certainly show perversity if we tried to explain the lives of our ancestors in terms of their late descendants; and it is just as wrong, in my opinion, to regard the unconscious as a derivative of consciousness. We are nearer the truth if we put it the other way round.”

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