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The Problem of Slavery in Christian America

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Today’s Christians and conservatives are largely unaware of the extent of the suffering of blacks in American History, from slavery to Jim Crow to the 1960s and even to today. They are largely unaware how systematic it was and what institutions were created specifically to maintain the injustices. Christians are largely unaware that their own clergy and churches were among Today’s Christians and conservatives are largely unaware of the extent of the suffering of blacks in American History, from slavery to Jim Crow to the 1960s and even to today. They are largely unaware how systematic it was and what institutions were created specifically to maintain the injustices. Christians are largely unaware that their own clergy and churches were among the leading proponents of the systems, and have no idea of the convicting and sad reasons why, or of the theological justifications employed for turning a blind eye to the injustice, or worse, active perpetuation of it. That such theologies are still widely taught today—and are in some cases the norm—is not a good sign when so many social ills still surround a silent church. In general, Christians and conservatives are not nearly as informed as they may think when it comes to understanding black history in the United States and the black saga it contains. The Problem of Slavery in Christian America aims at providing otherwise well-intended Christians and conservatives a deeper understanding of that history, a starting point for discussion and, if necessary, repentance, and with a biblical response to the larger problem of racism, all while refusing to capitulate to non-Christian leftism. About the Author: Joel McDurmon, PhD, is the president of American Vision. He has authored over a dozen books, including The Bounds of Love: An Introduction to God’s Law of Liberty and Restoring America One County at a Time. Dr. McDurmon is also featured in several audio and video lectures on various topics of theology, history, economics, and apologetics, and he contributes to the website www.AmericanVision.org regularly. Joel and his wife have four sons and one daughter.


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Today’s Christians and conservatives are largely unaware of the extent of the suffering of blacks in American History, from slavery to Jim Crow to the 1960s and even to today. They are largely unaware how systematic it was and what institutions were created specifically to maintain the injustices. Christians are largely unaware that their own clergy and churches were among Today’s Christians and conservatives are largely unaware of the extent of the suffering of blacks in American History, from slavery to Jim Crow to the 1960s and even to today. They are largely unaware how systematic it was and what institutions were created specifically to maintain the injustices. Christians are largely unaware that their own clergy and churches were among the leading proponents of the systems, and have no idea of the convicting and sad reasons why, or of the theological justifications employed for turning a blind eye to the injustice, or worse, active perpetuation of it. That such theologies are still widely taught today—and are in some cases the norm—is not a good sign when so many social ills still surround a silent church. In general, Christians and conservatives are not nearly as informed as they may think when it comes to understanding black history in the United States and the black saga it contains. The Problem of Slavery in Christian America aims at providing otherwise well-intended Christians and conservatives a deeper understanding of that history, a starting point for discussion and, if necessary, repentance, and with a biblical response to the larger problem of racism, all while refusing to capitulate to non-Christian leftism. About the Author: Joel McDurmon, PhD, is the president of American Vision. He has authored over a dozen books, including The Bounds of Love: An Introduction to God’s Law of Liberty and Restoring America One County at a Time. Dr. McDurmon is also featured in several audio and video lectures on various topics of theology, history, economics, and apologetics, and he contributes to the website www.AmericanVision.org regularly. Joel and his wife have four sons and one daughter.

30 review for The Problem of Slavery in Christian America

  1. 5 out of 5

    Suzannah

    Reposted from my blog, Vintage Novels The Problem of Slavery in Christian America describes itself as an ethical/judicial history of slavery in the US. That is, its primary focus is on the civil laws and church teachings as regards slavery (and, related, race) from the early 1600s up to the US Civil War and into the twentieth century. It's also, I should add, written from a conservative, Christian perspective. The Book Part 1 of the book focuses on how civil governments promoted, regulated, and ins Reposted from my blog, Vintage Novels The Problem of Slavery in Christian America describes itself as an ethical/judicial history of slavery in the US. That is, its primary focus is on the civil laws and church teachings as regards slavery (and, related, race) from the early 1600s up to the US Civil War and into the twentieth century. It's also, I should add, written from a conservative, Christian perspective. The Book Part 1 of the book focuses on how civil governments promoted, regulated, and institutionalised slavery throughout US history. There is a great amount of legal and statistical detail here: for example, that for a time it was illegal to free a slave unless the former master deported the slave from the colony at his own expense. Or that in some areas slaves made up as much as 90% of the population, and that in the 1700s trade with the Caribbean slave economies supplied a boggling two-thirds of New England’s wealth. Then, in Part 2, McDurmon retraces his footsteps to look at what the church, through denominational assemblies and prominent churchmen, was saying about issues of slavery and race throughout the same time period. For a committed, conservative Christian, this may actually be the most horrifying part of the book, as it shows - again, through the very words of demominational documents and influential clergymen - how persistently the church either excused slavery, or in many cases actively promoted it, often arguing from natural law premises to do so. And, at best, even where they did condemn it, how often they excused themselves from taking action: "As men and Christian Ministers, we are bound to seek not the freedom but the salvation of our race." Of course there were voices crying in the wilderness, but the majority of the church seems to have turned a stubbornly deaf ear. The History I want to make a quick note about something that McDurmon is not saying in this book. He is not picking sides when it comes to North versus South. He is every bit as hard on the North as he is on the South, and he's careful to note that a lot of abolitionist activity in the North was actually motivated by the same racism that motivated Southern slavery. That said, he does directly engage a lot of the arguments that have been used in the past to excuse the actions of the Confederacy. For instance, many would argue that while there were cruel slaveowners, there were also kind slaveowners whose slaves were not treated too badly. McDurmon provides convincing evidence that this was not the case: if anything, slaves complained that their more devout and "Christian" owners were harder taskmasters than the dissolute ones. Another common argument is that slavery was due to disappear from the South altogether within a few decades, without the need of a war. Even before the war, prominent Southerners promised that slavery wouldn't last. However, the very same men at other times argued that slavery was the foundation of the Southern social order, and that abolishing it would also destroy the South. Southerners also envisioned expanding US slave territory not just into the western frontier but also into the Caribbean, to form a future "Golden Circle" of slave states. Given this vision of a glorious slave-backed future and much other historical evidence, McDurmon is also critical of the notion that the war was not fought primarily over slavery. However, even if all these pro-Confederacy arguments could be proved to stand up to McDurmon's criticism, reading this book confronted me with a fact which I believe much pro-South material tends to gloss over, and that is that any system which permits evil men to commit outrageous injustice with impunity is abusive by definition. The legal structure itself was horribly oppressive even for the best-possibly-treated slaves: they couldn't learn to read, their movements and gatherings were severely regulated and restricted, their marriages and filial ties could be broken at any moment for the benefit of the domestic slave trade. In addition, you also have the fact that hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of human souls suffered under this system for two hundred years, hopelessly, in most cases with no hope that they or their children would ever escape. And then on top of that, you have the racism. Australia isn't completely devoid of racism, but racial tensions here are nothing compared to the US, and after reading this book I think I understand why. With the rise of American slavery in the 1600s, the medieval caste system was fading away following the downfall of its intellectual foundations in the Reformation, and slavery needed a new justification. McDurmon's book shows how racism became a new tool to justify slavery. He traces the development of racism through laws intended to drive social wedges between poor whites and black slaves, because the southern aristocracy feared what might happen if the two classes joined in revolt. Later, racism also became institutionalised in the church as well: theologians like Thornwell and Dabney argued from natural-law grounds that blacks were inherently inferior to whites, and that without the benevolent institution of slavery to curb their impulses they would run amok. In other words, slavery was such a huge part of American culture for such a long time that the justifications underpinning it became deeply, deeply ingrained into the minds of everyone in it. This is why, although slavery itself was abolished after the war, quasi-slavery arrangements as well as a vast and entrenched attitude of racism persisted well into the twentieth-century and have yet to be completely eradicated in the twenty-first. The How and Why As previously mentioned, Joel McDurmon has written this book from a conservative, Christian point of view. The stirring Epilogue is an exhortation based on the parable of the Good Samaritan (which is explicitly about racial reconciliation), in which he gives a practical outline for healing these old wounds through personal and private service, giving, and fellowship. As I was reading The Problem of Slavery in Christian America earlier last month, I had a friend ask if I thought this book was really necessary given how much has already happened to redress the evils of slavery and racism. Do we really need this book? Naturally, as an Australian, I'm not completely qualified to answer this question. But here's what I think. The US has always prided itself on being a beacon of freedom and opportunity for all comers, the place where you could go from being born in a log cabin to dying in the White House. That is the American dream. But for the majority of its history - let's say from 1660 to 1960 (still within living memory), or three hundred years - that dream was only for white people. For a huge number of black people, the US was "the land of the not-free and the home of the slave." For black slaves and far too many of their descendants, it was a dystopia where they were exploited, segregated, and silenced. While some things have improved, I'm willing to bet that a huge number of black people have never had a conservative, Christian person look them in the eye and say, "What happened was indefensible, and it grieves me that it was done to your people." But even just knowing the history documented so painstakingly in this book will, I believe, open the way to greater empathy and understanding. And that's why I think this book is important: because I honestly believe that reading it, and taking it seriously, will lead to greater love, service, and fellowship. This is not an attempt to stir up strife, it's an attempt to lance and clean a festering wound. I hope this book travels far and causes great reconciliation.

  2. 4 out of 5

    John

    With the problem of race in America persisting as an issue, it is imperative that Christians have a biblical response to the problem of race and a remedy to share within the church and with the unbelieving world. Christians have taken many approaches to this problem, and most of these approaches are simply baptized versions of secular theories. Joel McDurmon has given us a book that will help build a more firm foundation for the problem of race in America, and help ensure Christians are thinking With the problem of race in America persisting as an issue, it is imperative that Christians have a biblical response to the problem of race and a remedy to share within the church and with the unbelieving world. Christians have taken many approaches to this problem, and most of these approaches are simply baptized versions of secular theories. Joel McDurmon has given us a book that will help build a more firm foundation for the problem of race in America, and help ensure Christians are thinking and acting biblically, rather than worldly. The title of the book, "The Problem of Slavery in Christian America" sets the stage well. For American slavery is a glaring problem for any looking at the historical record. Many like to assert that America was founded as a "Christian nation" which is quite problematic when you consider that the nation was essentially built upon the economic system with slavery as its cornerstone. The book is far too long and detailed, and time too short to offer a comprehensive review, so instead I will offer McDurmon’s main arguments. 1. Slavery was driven by greed. European settlers wanted cheap labor, and found white indentured servants became competitors after their terms expired. African slavery and racist ideology could justify raced-based slavery. 2. Colonists in America abandoned English Common Law in favor of Roman civil law, in order to circumvent the more biblically faithful Common Law. When slaves began appealing for their freedom after becoming Christians, colonists changed the law such that they would remain slaves, even using the Bible to defend this change. And so American settlers would use the laws of the land to "...frame injustice by statute." (Ps. 94:20) 3. Colonists changed laws to favor slavery, and even subsidize it economically. Once the laws were changed, they could shelter themselves under the law, and justify their immorality by arguing they were simply “obeying the civil magistrate.” 4. Slaveholders in most cases could not legally free their slaves, or if they could, they would have to pay vast sums of money to return them to Africa. 5. Northern colonies became complicit in slavery not only by acting as the primary slave merchants, but by gaining economically by trading with, and in fact subsidizing the slave economy of the Caribbean which was invested 100% in the sugar industry, such that without the northern colonies trading with them, they would have not been able to eat or supply themselves with tools and supplies necessary for life. 6. At every point where slave holders were confronted with the evils of slavery they hardened themselves to it rather than seeking repentance and restitution. 7. Whites held a double-standard regarding blacks. They argued that Africans whose “greater tolerance for disease, harsh work and climate and pain allegedly ‘arose from their barbarism and savagery, which Europeans constantly likened to that of animals.’ Therefore racism and biology became ‘mutually reinforcing… where blacks excelled in strength, endurance, and health, whites attributed it to a closer kinship with animals than humans. Where blacks suffered more greatly however, it confirmed their inherent deficiency, filthiness, laziness, neglect of children, etc.” p. 39-40 8. “The majority of slave laws passed had the aim not only of subjugating the black race and enslaving them permanently, but of maintaining control.” This became a pattern not just during the era of slavery but of Jim Crow but on through today. This is perhaps the most important theme in the book—that the law has continued to act as a mechanism of controlling and subjugating the black population. 9. During the American Revolution there was a conscious double-standard in the rhetoric justifying the revolution because “Britons are our oppressors… we are slaves.” 10. Even George Washington sought to prevent his slaves from gaining their freedom, admitting the economic benefits he gained from them. 11. Both North and South consciously established slavery and the slave trade in the U.S. Constitution, and the economic gain they both received by it. 12. Slavery was the very cornerstone of life in the South. In 1804, a “… national convention of Abolitionists reported of North Carolina that the inhabitants of that state, consider the preservation of their lives, and all that they hold dear on earth, as depending on the continuance of slavery, and are even riveting more firmly the fetters of opposition.” p. 84 13. Slaveholders consciously profited by the birth of babies born into slavery. Thomas Jefferson wrote, “I consider the labor of a breeding woman as no object, and that a child raised every 2. Years as of more profit tan the crop of the best laboring man.” This in fact became the reason that southerners would outlaw the slave trade from Africa. 14. Emancipation brought little relief after the Civil War. “The whole societies of the North and South were consumed by the belief that blacks were a degraded race…” p. 174 “Between the black codes already in place for the free blacks of the South and the extensive discriminations, both social and legal, against free blacks in the North, the slaves had no chance of freedom from racism, oppression, degradation, discrimination, and even violence…” p. 182 15. The “convict lease system” in the South after the Civil War and well into the 20th century became a form of legally sanctioned slavery—leveraging Jim Crow laws to imprison blacks—particularly men, and then put them to forced labor. This was a profit-system for sheriffs and police for decades. p. 213-218 16. The Church was not only complicit in supporting the ideology behind slavery, but couldn’t have existed without the moral support offered by the clergy. 17. Slaveholders either refused to evangelize their slaves or used the Gospel as a means of making them more servile. This “gospel” was a small, condensed version that amounted to teaching their slaves to “Serve your masters. Don’t steal your master’s turkey. Don’t steal your master’s chickens. Don’t steal your master’s hogs. Don’t steal your master’s meat. Do whatsomeever your master tells you to do.” p. 245 18. Confessing Christian slaveholders had worse reputations than non-confessing slaveholders. 19. Christians tainted their witness to blacks. “…whole audiences full of slaves were known to get up and leave the preaching services of missionaries when they began to preach on stealing. They simply could not stomach the hypocrisy. One former slave who had successfully escaped to Canada recalled his old mixed Baptist church in Virginia used to preach the golden rule without even recognizing ‘what they were doing to their own brethren in Christ.’ He despaired that any could be saved.” 20. The churches sowed the seeds of racism that were difficult to root up later. “…churches had defended the necessity of preserving the slave system explicitly on racial grounds, appealing to the Bible, nature, reason, and a variety of anecdotes, historical and current. The War may have abolished the institution, but it did not abolish the racism at its root. The racism was left to manifest in other forms.” p. 269-270 21. The churches used the cover of the civil magistrate, rather than bring the Word of God to bear upon unjust, unchristian laws. Baptists “exonerated the barbaric civil law of castrating a runaway slave because ‘its presumed, this law was made by the Majestrate, and So the more binding…” p. 308 22. There is evidence that many slaveholders were consumed with guilt over their ownership and treatment of slaves, but this guilt crippled them, and in fact hardened them to the gospel, rather than bringing them to repentance. p. 326-328 23. Slavery was not innocuous and in fact was evil from root to tip in every case. There are those that argue for a more “paternalistic” view of slavery. But this cannot be defended. Common sentiment in the South concerning the governance of slaves was that “They can’t be governed without the whip.” Whipping and oppression were inherent in the slave system. p. 351 24. As Charles Dickens documented in his book “American Notes” it was common to find advertisements in papers for runaway slaves. These advertisements invariably described the scars or deformities that were the result of physical abuse. p. 352-353 25. Rape and sexual assault were common experiences for slave women. p. 360-370 As McDurmon concludes the book, he applies the historical facts to today’s situation. He writes, “We, all of us—but conservatives especially—are adept at trying to absolve ourselves in this area [the reality of slavery as a national sin] through the argument from necessity. We acknowledge that liberal programs make problems worse, and yet liberal politicians call only for more liberal programs. Blacks generally receive liberal promises openly, so conservative writers end up sounding as if they resent both the liberals and the blacks. When conservatives foresee matters only getting worse, they hunker down and call for more police, more ‘law and order,’ and more ‘tough on crime’ action. We have to do this out of necessity—self-preservation, they say. If we do not, drug dealers will rule the streets, etc. The slave owners, Jim Crow segregationalists, and others employed this same argument to justify their prejudices, too… But there is no absolution through fear; only through love This means there is no remedy through the state, only through private individuals.” p. 392-393 I think this is the key to the problem of race in America. Conservatives need to take a new approach that empathizes with the plight of blacks in America. We cannot continue fighting political battles with rhetoric that only alienates blacks. We must strive to find private solutions and remove the unjust laws that continue to enslave blacks even today. Now, on to some more personal reflections. It seems rather clear that Christian witness was poisoned by Christians, such that Christians must understand that we have to restore the trust that our forefathers demolished through their self-righteous and wicked treatment of blacks for centuries. This will take time, love, and humility. We must understand that blacks are suspicious of law and legal system because whites have for so long manipulated the law to our advantage and their disadvantage. Again, this takes empathy and understanding. Blacks are rightly suspicious about the legislative activity and judicial biases even today. Rather than resenting blacks for welfare, we ought to sympathize with them and help them to understand that the welfare system is yet another way of enslaving and manipulating the black population. More importantly we must come to understand that the drug war, ‘three-strike laws’, and incarceration system are ways that we use to enslave and control blacks that we fear. We must work to end these injustices. McDurmon’s book is a good foundation for further reflection on the state of racism in 21st century America. Hopefully others will continue down this path toward healing. I fear that the church instead will follow the path of secularlists whose primary objective is “The Politics of Guilt and Pity” as R.J. Rushdoony has written elsewhere.

  3. 5 out of 5

    Josiah Richardson

    This was a very sad and eye-opening read for me. Slavery has always been a blight on American history but I was not aware how much of a blight it was on American Christian history. Obviously there were many Christians who abstained and fought against slavery, but the prevalence and support for slavery from many Christians is undeniable. The slavery was just the first course. Torture, rape, man-stealing, murder, and other acts were commonly performed on black slaves and without repercussion. The c This was a very sad and eye-opening read for me. Slavery has always been a blight on American history but I was not aware how much of a blight it was on American Christian history. Obviously there were many Christians who abstained and fought against slavery, but the prevalence and support for slavery from many Christians is undeniable. The slavery was just the first course. Torture, rape, man-stealing, murder, and other acts were commonly performed on black slaves and without repercussion. The court systems were built around the white population and negated any testimony from a black man or woman unless under very certain circumstances. This allowed white slave owners to do unspeakable things to black men and women without fear of consequences from the state, and little to no consequences from the church. The stories from slave diaries, from Court records, and from those who did fight to end slavery are very emotional and will cause you to hate slavery even more than you did before and leave you with a bad taste in your mouth for those "Christians" who sat back and let this continue for so long. It makes you wonder what our generation of Christians are sitting back and letting occur in our culture today. I have a few ideas.

  4. 5 out of 5

    Jon

    Even after operating with a “Theonomic” worldview for over a decade, and after distancing myself from the whole “Christian Reconstructionism” movement for the last four years, I can honestly say that the last thing I ever imagined doing was giving a leading theonomist and reconstructionist author a five-star rating. Nevertheless, this book is outstanding. Clear, concise, considerate, convicting, comprehensive—and best of all—honest. It’s NOT just another regurgitation of prooftexts and “worldvie Even after operating with a “Theonomic” worldview for over a decade, and after distancing myself from the whole “Christian Reconstructionism” movement for the last four years, I can honestly say that the last thing I ever imagined doing was giving a leading theonomist and reconstructionist author a five-star rating. Nevertheless, this book is outstanding. Clear, concise, considerate, convicting, comprehensive—and best of all—honest. It’s NOT just another regurgitation of prooftexts and “worldview” resources. It’s a thorough analysis of the systemic sin of slavery in Christian America—from the seemingly ancient colonies to the modern cities.

  5. 5 out of 5

    Brandon

    Very good. Chapter eight and nine’s explanation for how churches attempted to justify condoning and/or ignoring slavery was very helpful.

  6. 4 out of 5

    Brian Elkins

    This is an well-documented academic work on the history of slavery in America and the deep theological and practical errors Christians committed in tolerating, supporting and defending the system. I had a hard time reading it because it was depressing and angering and I couldn’t stop crying. The epilogue presents implications for today in stunning gospel clarity. Every American Christian interested in a truer understanding of our national heritage in these regards should read it.

  7. 5 out of 5

    Christopher

    Books on history, especially which address the history of professing Christians, should be written with a contrite heart and for the purpose of repentance, rather than lionizing or white washing the past. That is the way biblical history presents itself and this is one of the rare examples of a contemporary author doing the same with his own history. I must confess I have been guilty of accepting and defending arguments justifying or diminishing the horrors of southern slavery and racism and the Books on history, especially which address the history of professing Christians, should be written with a contrite heart and for the purpose of repentance, rather than lionizing or white washing the past. That is the way biblical history presents itself and this is one of the rare examples of a contemporary author doing the same with his own history. I must confess I have been guilty of accepting and defending arguments justifying or diminishing the horrors of southern slavery and racism and the role that the church played in its perpetuation and I admit I was wrong. This book has made me reconsider and reassess what I believed about systemic racism and racial oppression in America then and now. I know some will accuse McDurmon of acting like a social justice warrior writing this book, some may insinuate he is only speaking to popular sentiment on hot button issues to gain notoriety, but this is unfair as the truth he uncovers about our nation’s past transcends party lines and paints the general state of immorality with the kind of shading that only a thoroughgoing Calvinist could. His proposed solutions are unpopular Christian solutions rather than the popular cultural marxist ones. His book calls for genuine love of neighbor by taking personal responsibility for the poor and downtrodden rather than relying on someone else (ie government) to do it. It demands repentance from conservative Christians who feel a sense of apathy or at best malaise toward matters of race and systemic oppression in our society. And what’s wrong with that? For as the apostle Peter says, judgment begins with the house of God.

  8. 4 out of 5

    Ruth

    I read this whole book slowly and carefully, including the appendices. I found it incredibly helpful in informing my understanding of what went on theologically in America, particularly from its inception through the Civil Rights era. This is a nation that purported itself "Christian" and in favor of liberty and justice for all--yet it cherished chattel slavery. How did people like Whitfield and Edwards (and so many others) justify their behavior? There's much here to lament, as well as eye-open I read this whole book slowly and carefully, including the appendices. I found it incredibly helpful in informing my understanding of what went on theologically in America, particularly from its inception through the Civil Rights era. This is a nation that purported itself "Christian" and in favor of liberty and justice for all--yet it cherished chattel slavery. How did people like Whitfield and Edwards (and so many others) justify their behavior? There's much here to lament, as well as eye-opening parallels to how the generational repercussions of slavery are being addressed (or not) by Christians today. Recommended.

  9. 5 out of 5

    The Great Asπ e

    Dr. Joel McDurmon goes through the history of the U.S. in regards to its treatment of African-Americans and finds the general conservative notion of washing away our guilt to be appalling. Dr. McDurmon judges the American judicial system via the Biblical standards of law and finds America wanting. He highlights the church's failure to adapt and back causes that really matter as it has historically taken the church awhile to be fight injustice on a political and global scale. Dr. Joel McDurmon goes through the history of the U.S. in regards to its treatment of African-Americans and finds the general conservative notion of washing away our guilt to be appalling. Dr. McDurmon judges the American judicial system via the Biblical standards of law and finds America wanting. He highlights the church's failure to adapt and back causes that really matter as it has historically taken the church awhile to be fight injustice on a political and global scale.

  10. 5 out of 5

    Jana Wallace

    Book wasn't written for Black/Brown people familiar with slavery history... also wording was dry. Otherwise it's necessary for the audience it was written for (mostly white/majority evangelical Christians). Book wasn't written for Black/Brown people familiar with slavery history... also wording was dry. Otherwise it's necessary for the audience it was written for (mostly white/majority evangelical Christians).

  11. 5 out of 5

    Eric Keel

    I can't express how heavy this book is and yet how needed it is for Western culture. Fantastic book! I can't express how heavy this book is and yet how needed it is for Western culture. Fantastic book!

  12. 5 out of 5

    Zach McDonald

    Super compelling. If the follow on book is anything like the Epilogue it will be worth the read.

  13. 4 out of 5

    Roger Leonhardt

    A much needed subject for today's church! Written by an author that is trustworthy! A much needed subject for today's church! Written by an author that is trustworthy!

  14. 5 out of 5

    Dustin Ranem

    A horrific, historic account of the church's complicity in the southern slavery system. A must read. A horrific, historic account of the church's complicity in the southern slavery system. A must read.

  15. 5 out of 5

    Abrahamus

    Illuminating in some respects (and well researched and documented), but significantly flawed with regard to certain crucial, underlying assumptions that make it ultimately of limited value in contributing to a genuinely helpful and healthy response to the intertwined issues of slavery and racism in American society, whether in consideration of historical or contemporaneous manifestations. I hope to write a more detailed review at some point.

  16. 5 out of 5

    Josiah Russell

  17. 4 out of 5

    Scott Guillory

  18. 4 out of 5

    Roman Misula

  19. 5 out of 5

    Marianne Spatol

  20. 4 out of 5

    Mick Connors

  21. 4 out of 5

    Davidr521

  22. 4 out of 5

    Tom

  23. 5 out of 5

    Neil McKinlay

  24. 5 out of 5

    Sean Rhoades

  25. 5 out of 5

    Bekah Mason

  26. 4 out of 5

    Sue

  27. 5 out of 5

    John

  28. 5 out of 5

    Charissa

  29. 4 out of 5

    Kojo

  30. 5 out of 5

    William Albers

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